By Michael J. Allen
John ‘snails’ Evans, developed a whole new subdiscipline of palaeo-environmental enquiry for archaeology, advancing both the understanding of past landscapes and human activity, and that of palaeo-molluscan ecology. He was an influential figure both as an environmental archaeologist and prehistorian, and as an old-fashioned field naturalist. Although others before him (Zeuner, Dimbleby) had set the course, it was John who almost single-handedly developed the discipline of environmental archaeology and, in 1970, was appointed as lecturer of environmental archaeology at Cardiff, the first post of its kind outside London. He became a Reader in 1982, a Professor in 1994 and retired in 2002, donating his extensive snail collection to the national Museum of Wales, Cardiff.
John was widely known in the British archaeology community and the conchology world, and made a great impact upon archaeologists, studiers of snails and conchology alike in his own inimitable style and maverick way. He was a colleague, friend and mentor to many of us, and made an immense contribution to palaeoenvironmental research and largely introduced the study of snails to archaeologists.
In 1972 he published the seminal work Land Snails in Archaeology, a book that unlike its companion Soils and Archaeology by Susan Limbrey (1975), had no predecessors and, to this day, also unlike its companion, has no successor. Over 30 years later has still not been surpassed. Long out of print, this book remains the ‘bible’ for several generations of archaeologists, environmental archaeologists and archaeomalocologists alike. So sought after is this tome that it is currently available second hand at the modest sum of $436!
John was a member of the Conchological Society from 1964-97, rejoining again in 2003. In retirement John’s interest in snails had been re-awakened, and he was revisiting ideas about mollusc assemblages from sand dunes (see Evans 2004). At his last attendance at a Conchological Society meeting (26 February 2005), only months before he died, he was ordering and collecting the few back numbers of J. Conch that he’d missed. More ironic was that he was attending my lecture on, of all subjects, ‘Molluscs in archaeology’. Why was he there? and what had he, of all people to learn? Perhaps little, but it was the interest in the subject, the ideas and the people generating and discussing them, that constantly intrigued him. He died prematurely at 63, two years after retiring, on 14th June 2005, after a short illness.
Life before snails
Born in St. Albans, Hertfordshire 11 November 1941, son of the microbiologist Sir David Evans (director of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine) John was brought up in London, and went to University College School, Hampstead and studied zoology at Reading University (1960-63). As an undergraduate he was a keen chorister, rower and demonstrated his love of Wagner to his fellow students.
It was here that some of his first interest in archaeology was gained, that interest would lead him to a life long connection with snails. He met the then curator of Reading Museum, John Wymer, himself a celebrated and recently departed doyen of British Palaeolithic archaeology. This friendship provided some of the inspiration for John to take zoological studies into archaeology it also introduced him to the university’s excavations at Silchester.
With this fusion of archaeology and zoology John set off back to London, after graduating in 1963, to study under the illustrious Pleistocene archaeologist and archaeozoologist Prof Zeuner. That summer he was sent by Zuener, ‘to a site at Rainham, Essex, under the supervision of [two young and later eminent archaeologists], Derek Simpson and Isobel Smith to learn how to excavate’. This was Zeuner's way of initiating John into archaeology; the acquaintance of these two, as John continued (2004), ‘was an auspicious choice because two significant strands of my PhD thesis on fossil snails were developed under these two archaeologists, the one on Neolithic chalk soils under Isobel and the other on windblown sand under Derek’. Unfortunately, Zuener died suddenly, aged 58, that autumn. Instead of studying mega palaeo-fauna, John ended up working on sub-fossil land snails. He continued at the Institute of Archaeology but was supervised by Michael Kerney of Imperial College, who had developed a methodology for their study from Pleistocene and Holocene deposits, focusing on changing distribution of species and climatic conditions. From this time John earned the epithet, and became affectionately know as, ‘Snails’ Evans; in part to distinguish him from John D. ‘Malta’ Evans, Mediterranean prehistorian, later Director of the Institute of Archaeology. He was rigorously encouraged, from 1964, by the newly appointed professor of Human Ecology, Geoff Dimbleby, and together they worked on a number of projects and together they wrote, in 1974, a seminal paper on pollen and snails from chalkland sites.
Prior to the final completion of his PhD John was offered a job as the first field archaeologist for Buckinghamshire County Museum (succeeded by Ros Dunnet, then by Mike Farley). By report this was not a complete success as John saw the job as an opportunity to complete his PhD and personal research investigations (clearly evidenced in his research in the area at Pitstone, Pink Hill etc), rather than dealing with the ‘archaeology’. I’m sure John was convinced that studying key snail and sedimentary sequences was archaeology, much to the consternation of the curator. He completed his PhD at the Institute in 1967 on ‘The stratification of Mollusca in chalk soils and their relation to archaeology’, largely subsequently published 5 years later in 1972 as ‘Land Snails in Archaeology’. He was appointed lecturer at University Cardiff in 1970 where he stayed as reader, later professor until his retirement in 2002. He was elected as a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, London, in 1974.
Snails in Archaeology
John made snails important in archaeology. Where previously landscapes devoid of pollen yet rich in human activity, remained empty of palaeo-environmental information and reconstruction, the analysis of snails enable the study of chalkland vegetation. He provided evidence for prehistoric woodland, of clearings and opening for settlements and of the first positive indications of tillage and farmers. In this way rewrote much of the prehistory of the chalk though the analysis of snails combined with archaeology.
John had bouts of tremendous energy, zeal, enthusiasm for archaeology, in his research and field investigation. This is exemplified by campaigns of fieldwork in the Avebury area in the late 1960s with Isobel Smith; on sand dunes in Scotland with Derek Simpson from the early 1970s; revisiting Avebury studying the landscape from alluvial deposits and snails with Prof Susan Limbrey (1980s), and later Neolithic monuments with Alasdair Whittle (1990s). Rivers and alluvium of the Test (Hampshire) and Wylye (Wiltshire) were studied in the early 1990s, and from each of these campaigns were borne postgraduate research and a number of disciples.
At least three generations of archaeologists were brought up on John’s seminal works: The Environment of Early Man in the British Isles (1975), Introduction to Environmental Archaeology (1978), and more recently Environmental Archaeology: Principles and Methods (1999; with Terry O’Connor), and Land and Archaeology (2001). More recently, his thinking and writing had become more adventurous in Environmental Archaeology and the Social Order (2003) in which he was willing us, as environmental archaeologists, to think of the meanings of our work in terms of people inhabiting landscapes. John was involved in editing the Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society from 1975 (vol. 51) to 1994 (vol. 60), producing 20 volumes containing many papers and site reports upon which much of our current archaeological foundation is based. Accompanying these was a wealth of his own major papers and contributions; many based on the analysis, or interpretation derived from the analysis of, land snails.
Stimulating but hard work
John developed a reputation as a stimulating and challenging teacher and there were few students who attended his courses who were not left with vivid and inspirational memories. He was particularly noted for his innovative methods. These included the arrival, as an active participant, of his dog (Darwin – see photograph) at a laboratory session designed to examine the effects of carnivores on large animal bone collections. He pushed friendship, teaching methods, technical procedures and theoretical ideas to the limits and was unpredictable; being dismissive one meeting, and overwhelmingly excited and encouraging at another. His interest and encouragement in others’ research was sometimes overwhelming and detrimental; his ever enthusiastic questioning consumed time that the recipient might have preferred to have been enquiring of Johns own, better, more wide-ranging, and significant research. Working with John was seldom predictable, often exhausting, but always stimulating and mind-broadening. Despite his significant contribution as a prehistorian, environmental archaeologist, conchologsist and teacher, he was surprisingly modest. He inspired many, wrote ground-breaking texts but he himself never spoke about that, and never boasted to anyone about what he had done and achieved.
John’s funeral said it all – a packed house in light airy summer clothes, Wagner, hymns in Welsh, tears and laughter, anger at his untimely departure and delight in shared memories, and simple coffin adorned with wild grasses and meadows flowers. He will be remembered for his individual style, such as ejecting potted plants through opened pub windows because they were irritating to the eye, but also for his guidance of and kindness towards the next generations of scholars. His enthusiasm was infectious and anyone showing an interest in his work or challenging his ideas was in for a great experience of discussion, debate and banter. His genuine interest and support of others work, whether they be students or colleagues, engendered an intensely loyal, but not uncritical, following.
Bibliography of John G. Evans
|Evans J.G.||1972||Land Snails in Archaeology Seminar Press, London.|
|Evans J.G.||1975||The Environment of Early Man in the British Isles Paul Elek, London.|
|Evans J.G.||1978||An Introduction to Environmental Archaeology Paul Elek, London.|
|Evans J.G.||1999||Land & Archaeology; histories of human environment in the British Isles Tempus, Stroud.|
|Evans J.G. & O'Connor T.||1999||Environmental Archaeology; principles and methods Sutton, Stroud.|
|Evans J.G.||2001||Land and Archaeolology Tempus, Stroud.|
|Evans J.G.||2003||Environmental Archaeology & the Social Order Routlege, London.|
|O'Connor T. & Evans J.G.||2005||Environmental Archaeology; principles and methods Sutton. 2nd edn. and revised, Stroud.|
|Evans J.G., Limbrey S.
& Cleere H. (eds)
|1975||The Effects of Man on the Landscape: the Highland Zone. Council for British Archaeology Research Report 11, London.|
|Limbrey S. & Evans J.G. (eds)||1978||The effect of Man on the Landscape: the lowland zone. Council for British Archaeology Research Report 21, London.|
|Evans J.G.||1967||The stratification of Mollusca in chalk soils and their relation to archaeology. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London, Institute of Archaeology.|
|Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society||1978–9||Assistant editor to John Coles|
|Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society||1980–6||Assistant editor to T.C. Champion|
|Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society||19878||Assistant editor with A.W.R. Whittle to T.C. Champion|
|Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society||1988–9||Editor|
|Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society||1990–3||Editor with A.W.R. Whittle|
|Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society||1994||Editor with J. Gardiner & A.W.R. Whittle|
|Evans J.G.||1966||Late-glacial and post-glacial subaerial deposits at Pitstone, Buckinghamshire. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 77: 347–363. [includes snails]|
|Evans J.G.||1966||A Romano-British interment in the bank of the Winterbourne, near Avebury. Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 61: 97–98.|
|Evans J.G.||1966||Land Mollusc from Neolithic enclosure on Windmill Hill. Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 61: 91–92.|
|Fowler P.J. & Evans J.G.||1967||Ploughmarks, lynchets and early fields. Antiquity 41: 289–301.|
|Evans J.G.||1968||Periglacial deposits on the chalk of Wiltshire. Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 63: 12–29.|
|Evans J.G.||1968||Changes in the composition of land molluscan populations in north Wiltshire during the last 5,000 years. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London 22: 293–317.|
|Evans J.G.||1969||The exploitation of molluscs In Ucko P.J. & Dimbleby G.W. The domestication and exploitation of plants and animals Duckworth, London 479–484.|
|Evans J.G.||1969||Land and freshwater Mollusca in archaeology: chronological aspects. World Archaeology 1: 170–183.|
|Evans J.G.||1969||Further periglacial deposits in North Wiltshire. Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 64: 112–113.|
|Evans J.G.||1970||Interpretation of land snail faunas. Bulletin of the London Institute of Archaeology 8 & 9: 106–116.|
|Evans J.G.||1971||Habitat change on the calcareous soils of Britain: the impact of Neolithic man. In D.D.A. Simpson (ed.) Economy and Settlement in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain and Europe University Press, Leicester 27–73. [includes snails]|
|Evans J.G.||1971||Notes on the environment of early farming communities in Britain. In D.D.A. Simpson (ed.) Economy and Settlement in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain and Europe University Press, Leicester 11–26.|
|Wainwright G.J., Evans J.G. &
|1971||The excavation of a late Neolithic enclosure at Marden, Wiltshire. Antiquaries Journal 51: 177–239.|
|Evans J.G. & Jones H.||1973||Subfossil and modern landsnail faunas from rock rubble habitats. Journal of Conchology 28: 103–129.|
|Evans J.G. & Limbrey S.||1974||The experimental earthwork on Morden Bog, Wareham, Dorset, England: 1963-1972. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 40: 170–202.|
|Evans J.G. & Valentine K.W.G.||1974||Ecological changes induced by prehistoric man at Pitstone, Buckinghamshire. Journal of Archaeological Science 1: 343–351. [includes snails]|
|Dimbleby G. W. & Evans J.G.||1974||Pollen and land-snail analysis of calcareous soils. Journal of Archaeological Science 1: 117–133.|
|Evans J.G., French C. &
|1978||Habitat change in two Late-glacial and Post-glacial sites in southern Britain: the molluscan evidence. In Limbrey S. & Evans J.G. (eds) The effect of Man on the Landscape: the lowland zone Council for British Archaeology Research Report 21, London, 63–75.|
|Evans J.G.||1979||The palaeo-environment of coastal blown-sand deposits in western and northern Britain. Scottish Archaeological Forum 9: 16–26. [includes snails]|
|Evans J.G.||1979||The environmental background to British prehistory. In Megaw J.V.S. & Simpson D.D.A. (eds) Introduction to British Prehistory. University Press, Leicester 6–22.|
|Ashbee P., Smith I.F. &
|1979||Excavation of three Long Barrows near Avebury, Wiltshire. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 45: 207–300. [includes ‘The environment’ with, land-snail analysis (Horslip barrow) p275–6; The pre-barrow soil (Beckhampton Road) p 279–80; Land-snail analysis (South Street barrow) 283–96]|
|Evans J.G.||1983||Excavations at Bar Point, St Mary’s, Isles of Scilly, 1979–80, Cornish Studies 11: 7–32.|
|Evans J.G. & Smith I.F.||1983||Excavations at Cherhill, North Wiltshire 1967. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 49: 101–109. [inc. Evans JG Molluscan analysis p 101–6]|
|Evans J.G.||1984||Stonehenge – the environment in the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age and a Beaker burial. Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 78: 7–30. [includes snails]|
|Davis J. & Evans J.G.||1984||Grims Ditch, Ivinghoe, Records of Buckinghamshire 26: 1–10. [includes snails]|
|Evans J.G., Pitts M.W.
& Williams D.
|1985||An excavation at Avebury, Wiltshire, 1982. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 51: 305–320. [includes snails]|
|Evans J.G. & Vaughan M.P.||1985||An investigation into the environment and archaeology of the Wessex liner ditch system. Antiquaries Journal 65: 11–38. [includes snails]|
|Evans J.G.||1986||Radiocarbon dates from the Pitstone soil at Pitstone, Buckinghamshire. In Gowlett J.A.J. & Hedges R.E.M. (eds) Archaeological Results from Accelerator Dating. Oxford University Committee for Archaeology Monograph 11, Oxford, 91–4.|
|Evans J.G.||1986||Mollusca from the Iron Age sites at Meare, Somerset. Somerset Papers 12: 97–102.|
|Evans J.G. & Simpson D.D.A.||1986||Radiocarbon dating for the Giant’s Hills 2 Long Barrow, Skendleby, Lincolnshire. In Gowlett J.A.J. & Hedges R.E.M. (eds) Archaeological Results from Accelerator Dating. Oxford, Oxford University Committee for Archaeology Monograph 11: 125–31.|
|Evans J.G.||1987||Perforatella rubiginosa (Schmidt 1853) in the Late Bronze Age at Runneymede, Egham, Surrey. Conchologists' Newsletter 102: 27–8.|
|Evans J.G., Limbrey S.
Maté I. & Mount R.
|1988||Environmental change and land-use history in a Wiltshire river valley in the last 14,000 years. In Barrett J.C. & Kinnes I.A. (eds) The Archaeology of context in the Neolithic and Bronze Age; recent trends. J.R. Collis, Sheffield, 97–103. [includes snails]|
|Evans J.G., Rouse A. &
|1988||The landscape setting of causewayed camps: recent work on the Maiden Castle enclosure. In Barrett J.C. & Kinnes I.A. (eds) The Archaeology of context in the Neolithic and Bronze Age: recent trends. JR Collis, Sheffield, 73–78. [includes snails]|
|Evans J.G.||1990||Notes on some Late Neolithic and Bronze Age events in long barrow ditches in southern and eastern England. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 56: 111–116.|
|Evans J.G.||1990||An archaeological survey of Skomer, Dyfed. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 56: 247–67.|
|Evans J.G. & Rouse A.||1990||Small-vertebrate and mollusca analysis from the same site. Circaea 8: 75–84.|
|Evans J.G.||1991||An approach to the interpretation of dry-ground and wet-ground taxocenes from central-southern England. In Harris D.R. & Thomas K.D. (eds) Modelling ecological change: perspectives from neoecology, palaeoecology and environmental archaeology University College, London, 75–90.|
|Evans J.G. & Simpson D.||1991||Giants' Hill 2 long barrow, Skendlebury, Lincolnshire. Archaeologia 109: 1–45. [includes snails]|
|Griffiths H.I. & Evans J.G.||1991||Some freshwater ostracods (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from South Wales. Freshwater Forum 1: 64–72.|
|Young M.S.& Evans J.G.||1991||Modern land mollusc communities from Flat Holm, South Glamorgan. Journal of Conchology 34: 63–70.|
|Evans J.G.||1992||River valley bottoms and archaeology in the Holocene In Coles B. (ed.) The Wetland Revolution in Prehistory Warp, The Prehistoric Society, 47–53. [includes snails]|
|Evans J.G., Davies P.,
Mount R. & Williams D.
|1992||Mollusc taxocenes from Holocene overbank alluvium in southern central England. In Needham S. & Macklin M.G. (eds) Alluvial Archaeology in Britain Oxbow Monograph 27, Oxford, 65–74.|
|Griffiths H.I. & Evans J.G.||1992||Potamocypris arcuata (SARS, 1903) (Ostracoda) new to Britain. Crustaceana 62: 110–112.|
|Griffiths H.I.& Evans J.G.||1992||A simple notation scheme to describe time-averaged ostracod assemblages (Crustacea, Ostracoda) by their taxonomic composition. Journal of Micropalaeontology 11: 31–35.|
|Evans J.G.||1993||The influence of human communities on the English chalkands from the mesolithic to the Iron Age: the molluscan evidence. In Chambers F.M. (ed.) Climate change and human impact on the landscape Chapman & Hall, London, 147–56.|
|Evans J.G. & Griffiths H.I.||1993||Holocene mollusc and ostracod sequences: their potential for examining short-timescale evolution. In Lees D.R. & Walker D. (eds) Evolutionary Patterns and Processes Academic Press, London, 125–137.|
|Evans J.G. & Griffiths H.I.||1993||Mollusc and ostracod evidence. In Warren W.P. & O'Connell M. (eds) An Boireann / The Burren (Field Guide 15) Irish Association for Quaternary Studies, Galway, 52–4.|
|Evans J.G. & Griffiths H.I.||1993||Investigations towards the reconstruction of the Late-glacial environment at Lurga, S.E. Burren. II Mollusc and ostracod evidence (Site P1). In Warren W.P. & O'Connell M. (eds) An Boireann / The Burren (Field Guide 15) Irish Association for Quaternary Studies, Galway, 48–50.|
|Evans J.G., Limbrey S.,
Maté I. & Mount R.
|1993||An environmental history of the Upper Kennet valley, Wiltshire, for the last 10,000 years. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 59: 139–195. [includes snails]|
|Griffiths H.I., Martin D.S.
Shine A.J. & Evans J.G.
|1993||The ostracod fauna (Crustacea, Ostracoda) of the profundal benthos of Loch Ness, Hydrobiologia 254: 111–117.|
|Walker M.J.C., Griffiths H.I.,
Ringwood V. & Evans J.G.
|1993||An early Holocene pollen, mollusc and ostracod sequence from lake marl at Llangorse, South Wales, UK The Holocene 3: 139–49|
|Whittle A., Rouse A.J. &
|1993||A Neolithic downland monument in its environment: excavations at Easton Down long barrow, Bishops Cannings, north Wiltshire. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 59: 197–239. [includes snails]|
|Griffiths H.I., Rouse A. &
|1993||Processing freshwater ostracods from archaeological deposits with a key to the valves of the major British genera. Circaea 10: 53–62.|
|Griffiths H.I. & Evans J.G.||1994||Infestation of the freshwater ostracod Cypria ophthalmica (Jurine) by the peritrich Nüchterleinella corneliae (Matthes), Archiv für Protistenkunde 144: 23–25.|
|Griffiths H.I., Ringwood V. &
|1994||Weichselian Late-glacial and early Holocene molluscan and ostracod sequences from lake sediments at Stellmoor, north Germany. Archiv für Hydrobiologie (Suppl.) 99: 357–80.|
|Rouse A. & Evans J.G.||1994||Modern land Mollusc from Maiden Castle, Dorset, and their relevance to the interpretation of subfossil archaeological assemblages. Journal of Molluscan Studies 60: 315–29.|
|Griffiths H.I. & Evans J.G.||1995||The Late-glacial and early Holocene colonisation of the British Isles by freshwater ostracods In Riha J. (ed.) Ostracods and biostratigraphy Balkema, Rotterdam, 291–302.|
|Griffiths H.I. & Evans J.G.||1995||An annotated checklist of British Pleistocene, Holocene and Modern freshwater Ostracoda. Journal of Micropalaeontology 14: 59–65.|
|Griffiths H.I., Pillidge K.E.,
Hill C.J., Evans J.G. &
|1996||Ostracod Gradients in a Calcareous Stream: Implications for the Palaeoecological Interpretation of Tufas and Travertines. Limnologica 26: 49–61.|
|Griffiths H.I., Pietrzeniuk E.,
Fuhrmann R., Lennon J.J.,
Martens K. & Evans J.G.
|1998||Tonacypris glacialis (Ostracoda Cyprididae): taxonomic position, (palaeo-) ecology, and zoogeography. Journal of Biogeography 25: 515–526.|
|Evans J.G.||2004||Land snails as a guide to the environments of wind-blown sand: the case of Lauria cylindracea and Pupilla muscorum. In Gibson A. & Sheridan A. (eds) From Sickles to Circles; Britain and Ireland at the time of Stonehenge Tempus, Stroud, 366–79.|
|Evans J.G.||2004||Texture and asymmetry in later prehistoric lithics, and their relevance to environmental archaeology. In Cleal R. and Pollard J. (eds) Monuments and Material Cultural; papers in honour of an Avebury archaeologist: Isobel Smith The Hobnob Press, Salisbury, 215–224.|
|Evans J.G.||2005||Memory and ordination: environmental archaeology in tells. In Bailey D., Whittle A. & Cummings V. (eds), (Un)settling the Neolithic Oxbow Books, Oxford, 112–125.|
Contributions to other papers
|(except contributions within papers co-authored by John)|
|Evans J.G.||1965||Land Mollusca. In Smith I.F., Excavation of a Bell Barrow, Avebury, G.55 Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 60: 44–45.|
|Evans J.G.||1967||The land snails. In Avery M., Sutton J.E.G. & Banks J.W., Rainsborough, Northants, England: Excavations 1961-5. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 33: 300.|
|Evans J.G.||1970||Non-marine Mollusca. In Fowler P.J. Fieldwork and excavation in the Butcombe area, North Somerset. Proceedings University Bristol Spaeological Society 12: 169–194.|
|Evans J.G.||1971||Durrington Walls: the pre henge environment In Wainwright G.J. & Longworth I.H. Durrington Walls: Excavations 1966–68. Research Report of the Society of Antiquaries of London 27: 329–337. [includes snails]|
|Evans J.G. &
|1973||Court Hill Cairn: land snails In Green H.S. Archaeology and the M5 Motorway; fifth report: the excavation of a roundcairn on Court Hill, Tickenham, North Somerset 1969. Somerset Archaeological & Natural History 117: 38–41.|
|Evans J.G.||1974||Land snails. In Green H.S., Early Bronze Age burial territory and population in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, and the Great Ouse Valley Archaeological Journal 131: 97–100.|
|Evans J.G.||1974||The land snails. In Williams J.H. (ed.) Two Iron Age sites in Northampton. Northampton Development Corporation Archaeological Monograph 1: 63.|
|Evans J.G.||1975||Mollusca. In Johnson A.E. Excavations at Bourton Grounds, Thornborough 1972-3. Records of Buckinghamshire 20: 49.|
|Evans J.G.||1976||Land snails. In Everson P. Iron Age enclosures at the Queensway Health Centre site, Hardwick Park, Wellingborough. Northamptonshire Archaeology 11: 97–98.|
|Evans J.G. &
|1976||Appendix I; the prebarrow environment. In Manby T.G. Excavation of the Kilham long barrow, East Riding of Yorkshire Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 42: 150–156.|
|Evans J.G.||1977||Appendix I Gerrard's Cross: Environmental. In Barfield L.H. The excavation of a Mesolithic site at Gerrards Cross, Buckinghamshire. Records of Buckinghamshire 20: 319–20.|
|Evans J.G. &
|1977||Appendix 4: the Mollusca and environment, Buckquoy, Orkney. In Ritchie A . Excavation of Pictish and Viking-age farmsteads at Buckquoy, Orkney. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 108: 174–227.|
|Evans J.G.||1978||Mollusca. In Butcher S.A. Excavations at Nornour, Isles of Scilly 1969–73: the prehistoric and Roman settlement. Cornish Archaeology 17: 103–4.|
|Evans J.G.||1979||Land Molluscs. In Williams J.H. St.Peter's Street, Northampton; excavations 1973–76. Northampton Development Corporation Archaological Monograph 2: 338–339.|
|Evans J.G.||1979||Mollusca. In Rahtz P. The Saxon and Medieval Palaces at Cheddar British Archaeological Reports 65, Oxford, 362.|
|Evans J.G. &
|1979||Mount Pleasant and Woodhenge: the land Mollusca. In Wainwright G.J., Mount Pleasant, Dorset: Excavations 1970–1971. Society of Antiquaries of London Research Report 37: 190–213.|
|Evans J.G.||1967||Land Molluscs. In Robertson MacKay M.E., A ‘head and hooves’ burial beneath a round barrow, with other Neolithic and Bronze Age sites, on Hemp Knoll, near Avebury, Wiltshire. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 46: 171–174.|
|Evans J.G.||1980||Land molluscs. In Price R. & Watts L. Rescue excavations at Combe-Hay, Somerset 1968–73 Somerset Archaeological & Natural History 124: 1–42.|
|Evans J.G. &
|1981||Chapter VI: subfossil landsnails from Grimes Graves and other Neolithic flint mines. In Mercer R.J. Grimes Graves, Norfolk: excavations 1971-72: Vol I. HMSO, London.|
|Evans J.G. &
|1983||Appendix 8: the Mollusca from Knap of Howar, Orkney. In Ritchie A. Excavation of a Neolithic farmstead at Knap of Howar, Papa Westray, Orkney. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 113: 104–114.|
|Evans J.G.||1985||Land Mollusca. In Green H.S. & Sofranoff S. A Neolithic settlement at Stacey Bushes, Milton Keynes. Records of Buckinghamshire 27: 17–19.|
|Evans J.G. &
|1986||Marine shells. In Smith C. Excavations of the Ty Mawr hut-circles, Holyhead, Anglesey, Part III: the finds. Archaeologia Cambrensis 135: 55–63.|
|Evans J.G.||1987||The land molluscan assemblages. In Gingell C.J. An earthwork near Badbury Rings in Dorset. Proceedings Dorset Natural History & Archaeological Society 109: 76–7.|
|Evans J.G. &
|1990||The Mollusca In Benson D.G., Evans J.G., Williams G.H., Darvill T. & David A. Excavations at Stackpole Warren, Dyfed. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 56: 179–245.|
|Evans J.G. &
|1991||The river valleys of the South Winterbourne and Frome. In Sharples N.M. Maiden Castle; excavations and field survey 1985–6. English Heritage Archaeological Report No. 19: 15–17.|
|Evans J.G. &
|1991||The land Mollusca In Sharples N.M. Maiden Castle; excavations and field survey 1985–6. English Heritage Archaeological Report No. 19: 118–125.|
|Evans J.G.||1991||Discussion. In Sharples N.M. Maiden Castle; excavations and field survey 1985–6. English Heritage Archaeological Report No. 19: 250–253.|
|Evans J.G.||1991||The land and freshwater Mollusca. In Needham S.P. Excavation and Salvage at Runneymede Bridge, 1978: the Late Bronze Age waterfront site, London: British Museum, 263–274.|
|Evans J.G. &
|1991||Land Mollusca from the M3 archaeological sites - a review. In Fasham P.J. & Whinney R.J.B. Archaeology and the M3; the watching brief, the Anglo-Saxon settlement at Abbots Worthy and retrospective sections. Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society Monograph 7: 113–142.|
|Evans J.G.||1992||Mollusca. In Butterworth C.A. & Lobb S.J. Excavations in the Burghfield Area, Berkshire; developments in the Bronze Age and Saxon landscapes. Salisbury, Wessex Archaeological Report 1: 130–43.|
|Evans J.G.||1993||Mollusca. In Casey P.J., Davies J.L. & Evans J. Excavations at Segontium (Caernarfon) Roman Fort, 1975–1979, Council for British Archaeology Research Report 90, London, 120–121.|
|Harris J. &
|1994||Molluscan analysis. In Whittle A. Excavations at Millbarrow Neolithic Chambered Tomb, Winterbourne Monkton, North Wiltshire. Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 87: 26–32.|
|Evans J.G.||1995||Land- und Süsswassermollusken In Ottaway B. Ergolding, Fischergasse – eine Feuchtbodensiedlung der Altheimer Kultur in Niederbayern, Kallmunz, Michael Lassleben, 193–202.|
|Evans J.G.||1997||Mollusca [Silbury Hill]. In Whittle A. Sacred Mound Holy Rings; Silbury Hill and the West Kennet palisade enclosures; a later Neolithic complex in north Wiltshire Oxbow Monograph 75, Oxford, 47.|
|Williams D. &
|1997||Molluscs In Hurst J.D. A multi-period salt production site at Droitwich: excavations at Upwich. Council for British Archaeology Research Report 107, York, 145–146.|
|Evans M. &
|2000||Chapter 7: Molluscan evidence. In Needham S.P. The Passage of the Thames; Holocene environment and settlement at Runneymede. London: British Museum Press, 125–138.|
|Evans J.G.||2000||Discussion [of the molluscan evidence]. In Needham S.P. The Passage of the Thames; Holocene environment and settlement at Runneymede. London: British Museum Press, 138–45.|
Some Ancient Monuments Laboratory Reports (English Heritage)
|Evans J.G.||1975||Henley Wood, Yatton, Somerset, AML Report 1755.|
|Evans J.G.||1975||Mollusca identification: Cannington Somerset, AML Report 1774.|
|Evans J.G.||1975||New Palace Yard Molluscs, AML Report 1785.|
|Evans J.G.||1975||Mollusca identification; Beeston Castle, AML Report 1820.|
|Evans J.G.||1975||Mollusca identification: Witcombe, Gloucetershire, AML Report 1822.|
|Evans J.G.||1975||Mollusc identification: Wroxeter, AML Report 1825.|
Photograph of John Evans and Darwin courtesy of Gill Swanton.
A number of John’s friends and colleagues willingly provided information about their encounters with and memories of him, which, due to space, I have unfortunately been able to commit only a few to these pages; nevertheless I thank them all for their help. This is for all who knew John and for Vivian, Dickon, Ailinor and Thomas.
Michael J. Allen