Professor John Gwynne Evans (1941-2005) a.k.a. ‘Snails’ Evans

Author & date of last revision: Pryce Buckle on 8 December 2011

By Michael J. Allen

Extracted from Journal of Conchology, Volume 39, pp. 111–117.
Photo of John Evans, courtesy of Gill Swanton

John ‘snails’ Evans, developed a whole new subdiscipline of palaeo-environmental enquiry for archaeology, advancing both the understanding of past landscapes and human activity, and that of palaeo-molluscan ecology. He was an influential figure both as an environmental archaeologist and prehistorian, and as an old-fashioned field naturalist. Although others before him (Zeuner, Dimbleby) had set the course, it was John who almost single-handedly developed the discipline of environmental archaeology and, in 1970, was appointed as lecturer of environmental archaeology at Cardiff, the first post of its kind outside London. He became a Reader in 1982, a Professor in 1994 and retired in 2002, donating his extensive snail collection to the national Museum of Wales, Cardiff.

John was widely known in the British archaeology community and the conchology world, and made a great impact upon archaeologists, studiers of snails and conchology alike in his own inimitable style and maverick way. He was a colleague, friend and mentor to many of us, and made an immense contribution to palaeoenvironmental research and largely introduced the study of snails to archaeologists.

In 1972 he published the seminal work Land Snails in Archaeology, a book that unlike its companion Soils and Archaeology by Susan Limbrey (1975), had no predecessors and, to this day, also unlike its companion, has no successor. Over 30 years later has still not been surpassed. Long out of print, this book remains the ‘bible’ for several generations of archaeologists, environmental archaeologists and archaeomalocologists alike. So sought after is this tome that it is currently available second hand at the modest sum of $436!

John was a member of the Conchological Society from 1964-97, rejoining again in 2003. In retirement John’s interest in snails had been re-awakened, and he was revisiting ideas about mollusc assemblages from sand dunes (see Evans 2004). At his last attendance at a Conchological Society meeting (26 February 2005), only months before he died, he was ordering and collecting the few back numbers of J. Conch that he’d missed. More ironic was that he was attending my lecture on, of all subjects, ‘Molluscs in archaeology’. Why was he there? and what had he, of all people to learn? Perhaps little, but it was the interest in the subject, the ideas and the people generating and discussing them, that constantly intrigued him. He died prematurely at 63, two years after retiring, on 14th June 2005, after a short illness.

Life before snails

Born in St. Albans, Hertfordshire 11 November 1941, son of the microbiologist Sir David Evans (director of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine) John was brought up in London, and went to University College School, Hampstead and studied zoology at Reading University (1960-63). As an undergraduate he was a keen chorister, rower and demonstrated his love of Wagner to his fellow students.

It was here that some of his first interest in archaeology was gained, that interest would lead him to a life long connection with snails. He met the then curator of Reading Museum, John Wymer, himself a celebrated and recently departed doyen of British Palaeolithic archaeology. This friendship provided some of the inspiration for John to take zoological studies into archaeology it also introduced him to the university’s excavations at Silchester.

With this fusion of archaeology and zoology John set off back to London, after graduating in 1963, to study under the illustrious Pleistocene archaeologist and archaeozoologist Prof Zeuner. That summer he was sent by Zuener, ‘to a site at Rainham, Essex, under the supervision of [two young and later eminent archaeologists], Derek Simpson and Isobel Smith to learn how to excavate’. This was Zeuner's way of initiating John into archaeology; the acquaintance of these two, as John continued (2004), ‘was an auspicious choice because two significant strands of my PhD thesis on fossil snails were developed under these two archaeologists, the one on Neolithic chalk soils under Isobel and the other on windblown sand under Derek’. Unfortunately, Zuener died suddenly, aged 58, that autumn. Instead of studying mega palaeo-fauna, John ended up working on sub-fossil land snails. He continued at the Institute of Archaeology but was supervised by Michael Kerney of Imperial College, who had developed a methodology for their study from Pleistocene and Holocene deposits, focusing on changing distribution of species and climatic conditions. From this time John earned the epithet, and became affectionately know as, ‘Snails’ Evans; in part to distinguish him from John D. ‘Malta’ Evans, Mediterranean prehistorian, later Director of the Institute of Archaeology. He was rigorously encouraged, from 1964, by the newly appointed professor of Human Ecology, Geoff Dimbleby, and together they worked on a number of projects and together they wrote, in 1974, a seminal paper on pollen and snails from chalkland sites.

Prior to the final completion of his PhD John was offered a job as the first field archaeologist for Buckinghamshire County Museum (succeeded by Ros Dunnet, then by Mike Farley). By report this was not a complete success as John saw the job as an opportunity to complete his PhD and personal research investigations (clearly evidenced in his research in the area at Pitstone, Pink Hill etc), rather than dealing with the ‘archaeology’. I’m sure John was convinced that studying key snail and sedimentary sequences was archaeology, much to the consternation of the curator. He completed his PhD at the Institute in 1967 on ‘The stratification of Mollusca in chalk soils and their relation to archaeology’, largely subsequently published 5 years later in 1972 as ‘Land Snails in Archaeology’. He was appointed lecturer at University Cardiff in 1970 where he stayed as reader, later professor until his retirement in 2002. He was elected as a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, London, in 1974.

Snails in Archaeology

John made snails important in archaeology. Where previously landscapes devoid of pollen yet rich in human activity, remained empty of palaeo-environmental information and reconstruction, the analysis of snails enable the study of chalkland vegetation. He provided evidence for prehistoric woodland, of clearings and opening for settlements and of the first positive indications of tillage and farmers. In this way rewrote much of the prehistory of the chalk though the analysis of snails combined with archaeology.

John had bouts of tremendous energy, zeal, enthusiasm for archaeology, in his research and field investigation. This is exemplified by campaigns of fieldwork in the Avebury area in the late 1960s with Isobel Smith; on sand dunes in Scotland with Derek Simpson from the early 1970s; revisiting Avebury studying the landscape from alluvial deposits and snails with Prof Susan Limbrey (1980s), and later Neolithic monuments with Alasdair Whittle (1990s). Rivers and alluvium of the Test (Hampshire) and Wylye (Wiltshire) were studied in the early 1990s, and from each of these campaigns were borne postgraduate research and a number of disciples.

At least three generations of archaeologists were brought up on John’s seminal works: The Environment of Early Man in the British Isles (1975), Introduction to Environmental Archaeology (1978), and more recently Environmental Archaeology: Principles and Methods (1999; with Terry O’Connor), and Land and Archaeology (2001). More recently, his thinking and writing had become more adventurous in Environmental Archaeology and the Social Order (2003) in which he was willing us, as environmental archaeologists, to think of the meanings of our work in terms of people inhabiting landscapes. John was involved in editing the Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society from 1975 (vol. 51) to 1994 (vol. 60), producing 20 volumes containing many papers and site reports upon which much of our current archaeological foundation is based. Accompanying these was a wealth of his own major papers and contributions; many based on the analysis, or interpretation derived from the analysis of, land snails.

Stimulating but hard work

John developed a reputation as a stimulating and challenging teacher and there were few students who attended his courses who were not left with vivid and inspirational memories. He was particularly noted for his innovative methods. These included the arrival, as an active participant, of his dog (Darwin – see photograph) at a laboratory session designed to examine the effects of carnivores on large animal bone collections. He pushed friendship, teaching methods, technical procedures and theoretical ideas to the limits and was unpredictable; being dismissive one meeting, and overwhelmingly excited and encouraging at another. His interest and encouragement in others’ research was sometimes overwhelming and detrimental; his ever enthusiastic questioning consumed time that the recipient might have preferred to have been enquiring of Johns own, better, more wide-ranging, and significant research. Working with John was seldom predictable, often exhausting, but always stimulating and mind-broadening. Despite his significant contribution as a prehistorian, environmental archaeologist, conchologsist and teacher, he was surprisingly modest. He inspired many, wrote ground-breaking texts but he himself never spoke about that, and never boasted to anyone about what he had done and achieved.

John’s funeral said it all – a packed house in light airy summer clothes, Wagner, hymns in Welsh, tears and laughter, anger at his untimely departure and delight in shared memories, and simple coffin adorned with wild grasses and meadows flowers. He will be remembered for his individual style, such as ejecting potted plants through opened pub windows because they were irritating to the eye, but also for his guidance of and kindness towards the next generations of scholars. His enthusiasm was infectious and anyone showing an interest in his work or challenging his ideas was in for a great experience of discussion, debate and banter. His genuine interest and support of others work, whether they be students or colleagues, engendered an intensely loyal, but not uncritical, following.

Bibliography of John G. Evans

Note: This bibliography aims to include all of John’s major works, most of his papers – but I am sure that there are, unfortunately, omissions especially amongst the list of his numerous contributions to others work and papers, and particularly those geographically further away from my own research, and those earlier in his career. Where it is not evident from the title, I have indicated papers where snail analysis or evidence is discussed.

Books

Evans J.G. 1972 Land Snails in Archaeology Seminar Press, London.
Evans J.G. 1975 The Environment of Early Man in the British Isles Paul Elek, London.
Evans J.G. 1978 An Introduction to Environmental Archaeology Paul Elek, London.
Evans J.G. 1999 Land & Archaeology; histories of human environment in the British Isles Tempus, Stroud.
Evans J.G. & O'Connor T. 1999 Environmental Archaeology; principles and methods Sutton, Stroud.
Evans J.G. 2001 Land and Archaeolology Tempus, Stroud.
Evans J.G. 2003 Environmental Archaeology & the Social Order Routlege, London.
O'Connor T. & Evans J.G. 2005 Environmental Archaeology; principles and methods Sutton. 2nd edn. and revised, Stroud.
 

Edited volumes

Evans J.G., Limbrey S.
& Cleere H. (eds)
1975 The Effects of Man on the Landscape: the Highland Zone. Council for British Archaeology Research Report 11, London.
Limbrey S. & Evans J.G. (eds) 1978 The effect of Man on the Landscape: the lowland zone. Council for British Archaeology Research Report 21, London.
 

Thesis

Evans J.G. 1967 The stratification of Mollusca in chalk soils and their relation to archaeology. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London, Institute of Archaeology.
 

Journal Editor

Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 1978–9 Assistant editor to John Coles
Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 1980–6 Assistant editor to T.C. Champion
Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 19878 Assistant editor with A.W.R. Whittle to T.C. Champion
Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 1988–9 Editor
Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 1990–3 Editor with A.W.R. Whittle
Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 1994 Editor with J. Gardiner & A.W.R. Whittle
 

Papers

Evans J.G. 1966 Late-glacial and post-glacial subaerial deposits at Pitstone, Buckinghamshire. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 77: 347–363. [includes snails]
Evans J.G. 1966 A Romano-British interment in the bank of the Winterbourne, near Avebury. Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 61: 97–98.
Evans J.G. 1966 Land Mollusc from Neolithic enclosure on Windmill Hill. Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 61: 91–92.
Fowler P.J. & Evans J.G. 1967 Ploughmarks, lynchets and early fields. Antiquity 41: 289–301.
Evans J.G. 1968 Periglacial deposits on the chalk of Wiltshire. Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 63: 12–29.
Evans J.G. 1968 Changes in the composition of land molluscan populations in north Wiltshire during the last 5,000 years. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London 22: 293–317.
Evans J.G. 1969 The exploitation of molluscs In Ucko P.J. & Dimbleby G.W. The domestication and exploitation of plants and animals Duckworth, London 479–484.
Evans J.G. 1969 Land and freshwater Mollusca in archaeology: chronological aspects. World Archaeology 1: 170–183.
Evans J.G. 1969 Further periglacial deposits in North Wiltshire. Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 64: 112–113.
Evans J.G. 1970 Interpretation of land snail faunas. Bulletin of the London Institute of Archaeology 8 & 9: 106–116.
Evans J.G. 1971 Habitat change on the calcareous soils of Britain: the impact of Neolithic man. In D.D.A. Simpson (ed.) Economy and Settlement in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain and Europe University Press, Leicester 27–73. [includes snails]
Evans J.G. 1971 Notes on the environment of early farming communities in Britain. In D.D.A. Simpson (ed.) Economy and Settlement in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain and Europe University Press, Leicester 11–26.
Wainwright G.J., Evans J.G. &
   Longworth I.H.
1971 The excavation of a late Neolithic enclosure at Marden, Wiltshire. Antiquaries Journal 51: 177–239.
Evans J.G. & Jones H. 1973 Subfossil and modern landsnail faunas from rock rubble habitats. Journal of Conchology 28: 103–129.
Evans J.G. & Limbrey S. 1974 The experimental earthwork on Morden Bog, Wareham, Dorset, England: 1963-1972. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 40: 170–202.
Evans J.G. & Valentine K.W.G. 1974 Ecological changes induced by prehistoric man at Pitstone, Buckinghamshire. Journal of Archaeological Science 1: 343–351. [includes snails]
Dimbleby G. W. & Evans J.G. 1974 Pollen and land-snail analysis of calcareous soils. Journal of Archaeological Science 1: 117–133.
Evans J.G., French C. &
   Leighton D.
1978 Habitat change in two Late-glacial and Post-glacial sites in southern Britain: the molluscan evidence. In Limbrey S. & Evans J.G. (eds) The effect of Man on the Landscape: the lowland zone Council for British Archaeology Research Report 21, London, 63–75.
Evans J.G. 1979 The palaeo-environment of coastal blown-sand deposits in western and northern Britain. Scottish Archaeological Forum 9: 16–26. [includes snails]
Evans J.G. 1979 The environmental background to British prehistory. In Megaw J.V.S. & Simpson D.D.A. (eds) Introduction to British Prehistory. University Press, Leicester 6–22.
Ashbee P., Smith I.F. &
   Evans J.G.
1979 Excavation of three Long Barrows near Avebury, Wiltshire. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 45: 207–300. [includes ‘The environment’ with, land-snail analysis (Horslip barrow) p275–6; The pre-barrow soil (Beckhampton Road) p 279–80; Land-snail analysis (South Street barrow) 283–96]
Evans J.G. 1983 Excavations at Bar Point, St Mary’s, Isles of Scilly, 1979–80, Cornish Studies 11: 7–32.
Evans J.G. & Smith I.F. 1983 Excavations at Cherhill, North Wiltshire 1967. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 49: 101–109. [inc. Evans JG Molluscan analysis p 101–6]
Evans J.G. 1984 Stonehenge – the environment in the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age and a Beaker burial. Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 78: 7–30. [includes snails]
Davis J. & Evans J.G. 1984 Grims Ditch, Ivinghoe, Records of Buckinghamshire 26: 1–10. [includes snails]
Evans J.G., Pitts M.W.
   & Williams D.
1985 An excavation at Avebury, Wiltshire, 1982. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 51: 305–320. [includes snails]
Evans J.G. & Vaughan M.P. 1985 An investigation into the environment and archaeology of the Wessex liner ditch system. Antiquaries Journal 65: 11–38. [includes snails]
Evans J.G. 1986 Radiocarbon dates from the Pitstone soil at Pitstone, Buckinghamshire. In Gowlett J.A.J. & Hedges R.E.M. (eds) Archaeological Results from Accelerator Dating. Oxford University Committee for Archaeology Monograph 11, Oxford, 91–4.
Evans J.G. 1986 Mollusca from the Iron Age sites at Meare, Somerset. Somerset Papers 12: 97–102.
Evans J.G. & Simpson D.D.A. 1986 Radiocarbon dating for the Giant’s Hills 2 Long Barrow, Skendleby, Lincolnshire. In Gowlett J.A.J. & Hedges R.E.M. (eds) Archaeological Results from Accelerator Dating. Oxford, Oxford University Committee for Archaeology Monograph 11: 125–31.
Evans J.G. 1987 Perforatella rubiginosa (Schmidt 1853) in the Late Bronze Age at Runneymede, Egham, Surrey. Conchologists' Newsletter 102: 27–8.
Evans J.G., Limbrey S.
   Maté I. & Mount R.
1988 Environmental change and land-use history in a Wiltshire river valley in the last 14,000 years. In Barrett J.C. & Kinnes I.A. (eds) The Archaeology of context in the Neolithic and Bronze Age; recent trends. J.R. Collis, Sheffield, 97–103. [includes snails]
Evans J.G., Rouse A. &
   Sharples N.
1988 The landscape setting of causewayed camps: recent work on the Maiden Castle enclosure. In Barrett J.C. & Kinnes I.A. (eds) The Archaeology of context in the Neolithic and Bronze Age: recent trends. JR Collis, Sheffield, 73–78. [includes snails]
Evans J.G. 1990 Notes on some Late Neolithic and Bronze Age events in long barrow ditches in southern and eastern England. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 56: 111–116.
Evans J.G. 1990 An archaeological survey of Skomer, Dyfed. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 56: 247–67.
Evans J.G. & Rouse A. 1990 Small-vertebrate and mollusca analysis from the same site. Circaea 8: 75–84.
Evans J.G. 1991 An approach to the interpretation of dry-ground and wet-ground taxocenes from central-southern England. In Harris D.R. & Thomas K.D. (eds) Modelling ecological change: perspectives from neoecology, palaeoecology and environmental archaeology University College, London, 75–90.
Evans J.G. & Simpson D. 1991 Giants' Hill 2 long barrow, Skendlebury, Lincolnshire. Archaeologia 109: 1–45. [includes snails]
Griffiths H.I. & Evans J.G. 1991 Some freshwater ostracods (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from South Wales. Freshwater Forum 1: 64–72.
Young M.S.&  Evans J.G. 1991 Modern land mollusc communities from Flat Holm, South Glamorgan. Journal of Conchology 34: 63–70.
Evans J.G. 1992 River valley bottoms and archaeology in the Holocene In Coles B. (ed.) The Wetland Revolution in Prehistory Warp, The Prehistoric Society, 47–53. [includes snails]
Evans J.G., Davies P.,
   Mount R. & Williams D.
1992 Mollusc taxocenes from Holocene overbank alluvium in southern central England. In Needham S. & Macklin M.G. (eds) Alluvial Archaeology in Britain Oxbow Monograph 27, Oxford, 65–74.
Griffiths H.I. & Evans J.G. 1992 Potamocypris arcuata (SARS, 1903) (Ostracoda) new to Britain. Crustaceana 62: 110–112.
Griffiths H.I.& Evans J.G. 1992 A simple notation scheme to describe time-averaged ostracod assemblages (Crustacea, Ostracoda) by their taxonomic composition. Journal of Micropalaeontology 11: 31–35.
Evans J.G. 1993 The influence of human communities on the English chalkands from the mesolithic to the Iron Age: the molluscan evidence. In Chambers F.M. (ed.) Climate change and human impact on the landscape Chapman & Hall, London, 147–56.
Evans J.G. & Griffiths H.I. 1993 Holocene mollusc and ostracod sequences: their potential for examining short-timescale evolution. In Lees D.R. & Walker D. (eds) Evolutionary Patterns and Processes Academic Press, London, 125–137.
Evans J.G. & Griffiths H.I. 1993 Mollusc and ostracod evidence. In Warren W.P. & O'Connell M. (eds) An Boireann / The Burren (Field Guide 15) Irish Association for Quaternary Studies, Galway, 52–4.
Evans J.G. & Griffiths H.I. 1993 Investigations towards the reconstruction of the Late-glacial environment at Lurga, S.E. Burren. II Mollusc and ostracod evidence (Site P1). In Warren W.P. & O'Connell M. (eds) An Boireann / The Burren (Field Guide 15) Irish Association for Quaternary Studies, Galway, 48–50.
Evans J.G., Limbrey S.,
   Maté I. & Mount R.
1993 An environmental history of the Upper Kennet valley, Wiltshire, for the last 10,000 years. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 59: 139–195. [includes snails]
Griffiths H.I., Martin D.S.
   Shine A.J. & Evans J.G.
1993 The ostracod fauna (Crustacea, Ostracoda) of the profundal benthos of Loch Ness, Hydrobiologia 254: 111–117.
Walker M.J.C., Griffiths H.I.,
   Ringwood V. & Evans J.G.
1993 An early Holocene pollen, mollusc and ostracod sequence from lake marl at Llangorse, South Wales, UK The Holocene 3: 139–49
Whittle A., Rouse A.J. &
   Evans J.G.
1993 A Neolithic downland monument in its environment: excavations at Easton Down long barrow, Bishops Cannings, north Wiltshire. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 59: 197–239. [includes snails]
Griffiths H.I., Rouse A. &
   Evans J.G.
1993 Processing freshwater ostracods from archaeological deposits with a key to the valves of the major British genera. Circaea 10: 53–62.
Griffiths H.I. & Evans J.G. 1994 Infestation of the freshwater ostracod Cypria ophthalmica (Jurine) by the peritrich Nüchterleinella corneliae (Matthes), Archiv für Protistenkunde 144: 23–25.
Griffiths H.I., Ringwood V. &
   Evans J.G.
1994 Weichselian Late-glacial and early Holocene molluscan and ostracod sequences from lake sediments at Stellmoor, north Germany. Archiv für Hydrobiologie (Suppl.) 99: 357–80.
Rouse A. & Evans J.G. 1994 Modern land Mollusc from Maiden Castle, Dorset, and their relevance to the interpretation of subfossil archaeological assemblages. Journal of Molluscan Studies 60: 315–29.
Griffiths H.I. & Evans J.G. 1995 The Late-glacial and early Holocene colonisation of the British Isles by freshwater ostracods In Riha J. (ed.) Ostracods and biostratigraphy Balkema, Rotterdam, 291–302.
Griffiths H.I. & Evans J.G. 1995 An annotated checklist of British Pleistocene, Holocene and Modern freshwater Ostracoda. Journal of Micropalaeontology 14: 59–65.
Griffiths H.I., Pillidge K.E.,
   Hill C.J., Evans J.G. &
   Learner M.
1996 Ostracod Gradients in a Calcareous Stream: Implications for the Palaeoecological Interpretation of Tufas and Travertines. Limnologica 26: 49–61.
Griffiths H.I., Pietrzeniuk E.,
   Fuhrmann R., Lennon J.J.,
   Martens K. & Evans J.G.
1998 Tonacypris glacialis (Ostracoda Cyprididae): taxonomic position, (palaeo-) ecology, and zoogeography. Journal of Biogeography 25: 515–526.
Evans J.G. 2004 Land snails as a guide to the environments of wind-blown sand: the case of Lauria cylindracea and Pupilla muscorum. In Gibson A. & Sheridan A. (eds) From Sickles to Circles; Britain and Ireland at the time of Stonehenge Tempus, Stroud, 366–79.
Evans J.G. 2004 Texture and asymmetry in later prehistoric lithics, and their relevance to environmental archaeology. In Cleal R. and Pollard J. (eds) Monuments and Material Cultural; papers in honour of an Avebury archaeologist: Isobel Smith The Hobnob Press, Salisbury, 215–224.
Evans J.G. 2005 Memory and ordination: environmental archaeology in tells. In Bailey D., Whittle A. & Cummings V. (eds), (Un)settling the Neolithic Oxbow Books, Oxford, 112–125.
 

Contributions to other papers

(except contributions within papers co-authored by John)
Evans J.G. 1965 Land Mollusca. In Smith I.F., Excavation of a Bell Barrow, Avebury, G.55 Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 60: 44–45.
Evans J.G. 1967 The land snails. In Avery M., Sutton J.E.G. & Banks J.W., Rainsborough, Northants, England: Excavations 1961-5. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 33: 300.
Evans J.G. 1970 Non-marine Mollusca. In Fowler P.J. Fieldwork and excavation in the Butcombe area, North Somerset. Proceedings University Bristol Spaeological Society 12: 169–194.
Evans J.G. 1971 Durrington Walls: the pre henge environment In Wainwright G.J. & Longworth I.H. Durrington Walls: Excavations 1966–68. Research Report of the Society of Antiquaries of London 27: 329–337. [includes snails]
Evans J.G. &
   Jones H.
1973 Court Hill Cairn: land snails In Green H.S. Archaeology and the M5 Motorway; fifth report: the excavation of a roundcairn on Court Hill, Tickenham, North Somerset 1969. Somerset Archaeological & Natural History 117: 38–41.
Evans J.G. 1974 Land snails. In Green H.S., Early Bronze Age burial territory and population in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, and the Great Ouse Valley Archaeological Journal 131: 97–100.
Evans J.G. 1974 The land snails. In Williams J.H. (ed.) Two Iron Age sites in Northampton. Northampton Development Corporation Archaeological Monograph 1: 63.
Evans J.G. 1975 Mollusca. In Johnson A.E. Excavations at Bourton Grounds, Thornborough 1972-3. Records of Buckinghamshire 20: 49.
Evans J.G. 1976 Land snails. In Everson P. Iron Age enclosures at the Queensway Health Centre site, Hardwick Park, Wellingborough. Northamptonshire Archaeology 11: 97–98.
Evans J.G. &
   Dimbleby G.W.
1976 Appendix I; the prebarrow environment. In Manby T.G. Excavation of the Kilham long barrow, East Riding of Yorkshire Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 42: 150–156.
Evans J.G. 1977 Appendix I Gerrard's Cross: Environmental. In Barfield L.H. The excavation of a Mesolithic site at Gerrards Cross, Buckinghamshire. Records of Buckinghamshire 20: 319–20.
Evans J.G. &
   Spencer P.J.
1977 Appendix 4: the Mollusca and environment, Buckquoy, Orkney. In Ritchie A . Excavation of Pictish and Viking-age farmsteads at Buckquoy, Orkney. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 108: 174–227.
Evans J.G. 1978 Mollusca. In Butcher S.A. Excavations at Nornour, Isles of Scilly 1969–73: the prehistoric and Roman settlement. Cornish Archaeology 17: 103–4.
Evans J.G. 1979 Land Molluscs. In Williams J.H. St.Peter's Street, Northampton; excavations 1973–76. Northampton Development Corporation Archaological Monograph 2: 338–339.
Evans J.G. 1979 Mollusca. In Rahtz P. The Saxon and Medieval Palaces at Cheddar British Archaeological Reports 65, Oxford, 362.
Evans J.G. &
   Jones H.
1979 Mount Pleasant and Woodhenge: the land Mollusca. In Wainwright G.J., Mount Pleasant, Dorset: Excavations 1970–1971. Society of Antiquaries of London Research Report 37: 190–213.
Evans J.G. 1967 Land Molluscs. In Robertson MacKay M.E., A ‘head and hooves’ burial beneath a round barrow, with other Neolithic and Bronze Age sites, on Hemp Knoll, near Avebury, Wiltshire. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 46: 171–174.
Evans J.G. 1980 Land molluscs. In Price R. & Watts L. Rescue excavations at Combe-Hay, Somerset 1968–73 Somerset Archaeological & Natural History 124: 1–42.
Evans J.G. &
   Jones H.
1981 Chapter VI: subfossil landsnails from Grimes Graves and other Neolithic flint mines. In Mercer R.J. Grimes Graves, Norfolk: excavations 1971-72: Vol I. HMSO, London.
Evans J.G. &
   Vaughan M.
1983 Appendix 8: the Mollusca from Knap of Howar, Orkney. In Ritchie A. Excavation of a Neolithic farmstead at Knap of Howar, Papa Westray, Orkney. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 113: 104–114.
Evans J.G. 1985 Land Mollusca. In Green H.S. & Sofranoff S. A Neolithic settlement at Stacey Bushes, Milton Keynes. Records of Buckinghamshire 27: 17–19.
Evans J.G. &
   Evans V.
1986 Marine shells. In Smith C. Excavations of the Ty Mawr hut-circles, Holyhead, Anglesey, Part III: the finds. Archaeologia Cambrensis 135: 55–63.
Evans J.G. 1987 The land molluscan assemblages. In Gingell C.J. An earthwork near Badbury Rings in Dorset. Proceedings Dorset Natural History & Archaeological Society 109: 76–7.
Evans J.G. &
   Hyde L.M.
1990 The Mollusca In Benson D.G., Evans J.G., Williams G.H., Darvill T. & David A. Excavations at Stackpole Warren, Dyfed. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 56: 179–245.
Evans J.G. &
   Rouse A.
1991 The river valleys of the South Winterbourne and Frome. In Sharples N.M. Maiden Castle; excavations and field survey 1985–6. English Heritage Archaeological Report No. 19: 15–17.
Evans J.G. &
   Rouse A.
1991 The land Mollusca In Sharples N.M. Maiden Castle; excavations and field survey 1985–6. English Heritage Archaeological Report No. 19: 118–125.
Evans J.G. 1991 Discussion. In Sharples N.M. Maiden Castle; excavations and field survey 1985–6. English Heritage Archaeological Report No. 19: 250–253.
Evans J.G. 1991 The land and freshwater Mollusca. In Needham S.P. Excavation and Salvage at Runneymede Bridge, 1978: the Late Bronze Age waterfront site, London: British Museum, 263–274.
Evans J.G. &
   Williams D.
1991 Land Mollusca from the M3 archaeological sites - a review. In Fasham P.J. & Whinney R.J.B. Archaeology and the M3; the watching brief, the Anglo-Saxon settlement at Abbots Worthy and retrospective sections. Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society Monograph 7: 113–142.
Evans J.G. 1992 Mollusca. In Butterworth C.A. & Lobb S.J. Excavations in the Burghfield Area, Berkshire; developments in the Bronze Age and Saxon landscapes. Salisbury, Wessex Archaeological Report 1: 130–43.
Evans J.G. 1993 Mollusca. In Casey P.J., Davies J.L. & Evans J. Excavations at Segontium (Caernarfon) Roman Fort, 1975–1979, Council for British Archaeology Research Report 90, London, 120–121.
Harris J. &
   Evans J.G.
1994 Molluscan analysis. In Whittle A. Excavations at Millbarrow Neolithic Chambered Tomb, Winterbourne Monkton, North Wiltshire. Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 87: 26–32.
Evans J.G. 1995 Land- und Süsswassermollusken In Ottaway B. Ergolding, Fischergasse – eine Feuchtbodensiedlung der Altheimer Kultur in Niederbayern, Kallmunz, Michael Lassleben, 193–202.
Evans J.G. 1997 Mollusca [Silbury Hill]. In Whittle A. Sacred Mound Holy Rings; Silbury Hill and the West Kennet palisade enclosures; a later Neolithic complex in north Wiltshire Oxbow Monograph 75, Oxford, 47.
Williams D. &
   Evans J.G.
1997 Molluscs In Hurst J.D. A multi-period salt production site at Droitwich: excavations at Upwich. Council for British Archaeology Research Report 107, York, 145–146.
Evans M. &
   Evans J.G.
2000 Chapter 7: Molluscan evidence. In Needham S.P. The Passage of the Thames; Holocene environment and settlement at Runneymede. London: British Museum Press, 125–138.
Evans J.G. 2000 Discussion [of the molluscan evidence]. In Needham S.P. The Passage of the Thames; Holocene environment and settlement at Runneymede. London: British Museum Press, 138–45.
 

Some Ancient Monuments Laboratory Reports (English Heritage)

Evans J.G. 1975 Henley Wood, Yatton, Somerset, AML Report 1755.
Evans J.G. 1975 Mollusca identification: Cannington Somerset, AML Report 1774.
Evans J.G. 1975 New Palace Yard Molluscs, AML Report 1785.
Evans J.G. 1975 Mollusca identification; Beeston Castle, AML Report 1820.
Evans J.G. 1975 Mollusca identification: Witcombe, Gloucetershire, AML Report 1822.
Evans J.G. 1975 Mollusc identification: Wroxeter, AML Report 1825.
 

Photograph of John Evans and Darwin courtesy of Gill Swanton.

A number of John’s friends and colleagues willingly provided information about their encounters with and memories of him, which, due to space, I have unfortunately been able to commit only a few to these pages; nevertheless I thank them all for their help. This is for all who knew John and for Vivian, Dickon, Ailinor and Thomas.

Michael J. Allen
Redroof,
Green Road,
Codford,
Wiltshire
(m.allen@wessexarch.co.uk)